idea of using air backup under the lower wing surface, moving near the
underlying surface, to increase its lift almost 100 years. In
the 20-30-XX century were carried out as the first theoretical studies
and experimental work (with up to attempts to create a self-propelled
vehicles of the samples), the effect of the screen on the aerodynamics
of the wing.
practical results in this field of technology has been achieved only in
the late 50's R.E. Alexeev - a talented designer to domestic hydrofoils.
Large WIG I generation.
a large ekranoplans I generation are created in 1966 experienced a ship
mock-up debris and built by the end of 1980 have serial WIG project
"Eaglet" (transport and landing) and "Lun" (rocket). CDB drafted by SEC WIG I generation "airborne" lay-wind scheme.
The winged ship: The ship - the layout (weight - 550 tons, speed - 400 km / h)
Central Construction Burea implemented a number of the design and field experiments on the use of WIG I generation in the rescue purposes.
long intervals due to lack of funding now comes alteration of the
second (and last) winged rocket "Lun" in the world's first emergency -
rescue winged "Rescuer". Operation
of WIG "Rescuer" if it is completed, no doubt, will give the desired
initial experience in conducting emergency emergency - rescue
The rescue winged "Rescuer" (draft)
Another option of rescue winged "Rescuer" with the bathyscaphe (draft)
Rescue Complex Maria - Eaglet "(draft)
Natural experiment with WIG "Lun" salvage
Study based WIG-rescuers I generation
Lessons of Building of Wigs
The role of ideological concepts in the creation of new technology can not be overestimated. Correctly
worked out the concept, lays in the adopted technical solutions, marked
success in the creation of design concepts, its exploration and
ultimately, whittled down most of the efforts invested in the
development of a new object, and inhibited the development of technology
over time. On the other hand, how important the role of the concept, and so the difficult task of determining the correct a priori. This is confirmed by the entire history of building of WIGs.
hindsight, it appears that progress in the development of WIG, a new
species of marine resources would be great, if adopted R.E.Alexeev at the
very beginning of his work on ekranoplans course for the creation of
large vehicles with high seaworthiness was maintained in future. Construction
WIG-model KM ok.550t displacement, in addition to the high altitude
over the water wings, consoles, and the development of a number of other
projects WIG large displacement, no doubt, were in the way of the
strategic development of this new type of marine resources. Was
immediately scheduled for a way to create WIG those large masses and
seaworthiness, which ruled out the possibility of competition to them by
air assets in solving several problems in the marine environment.
However, the design of WIG was later shifted to the creation of devices on the secondary displacement class "Eaglet". On
the basis of this project was supposed to demonstrate the special
qualities of WIG, and the cycle of their creation does not appear to be
as lengthy. Unfortunately,
practice shows that the time spent on commissioning new types of marine
equipment depend little on their mass, and determined by the amount of
research and new developments on the object, the test cycle and dovodok
etc. etc. The result was lost pace in the development of themes. In
addition, switching to low-wing scheme can not directly examine WIG
"Eaglet" as a scale model to evaluate the characteristics of advanced
a winged "Lun" mass 400T, we can say the situation has returned to
their original positions, but will not eliminate the time lag in the way
of solving strategic problems ekranoplanostroeniya.
a number of external circumstances most, if not decisive negative role
in this fact delays the development of winged subjects played a
scientific organization like the customer, and industry. Originally
from their side was not produced a clear sound development program WIG,
the shortest path leading to the ultimate goal. And
this very purpose, and therefore - and the concept of shape
technological perspective WIG was not well defined and justified. Efforts
R.E.Alexeev and CCB in the development of WIG, in fact, were not
supported by deep and credible scientific researches on the use of this
new type of technology or in the military, even more so in the civil
already relatively long history ekranoplanostroeniya, now there is
still no universally accepted definition of this type of technology. Do not set certain and specific principles at the forefront of designing WIG. There is no clear understanding of their place in the vehicles. Most papers in the area of feasibility of using WIG quite superficial.
Nevertheless, there are positive exceptions. Thus,
in V.P. Sokolyansky and other researchers from TsAGI sufficient detail
made a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of WIG and aircraft. It is shown that WIG is preferable to transport routes with frequent landings. This
is the economic side ekranoplanostroeniya requiring further accurate
assessments on specific routes at certain passazhirogruzopotokah,
weather conditions, taking into account the availability of appropriate
infrastructure, etc. etc. Without
such specific estimates can not do in the development of basic
technical configuration of WIG and ideology ekranoplanostroeniya.
But it is necessary to decide in the purely technical sphere. What
pre-emptive technical quality must distinguish this kind of technology
from other high-speed vehicles and, accordingly, in every possible way
to develop the design of WIG and even be the core of their advertising? Unfortunately, these fundamental principles are not discussed to the extent necessary among ekranoplanostroiteley.
Aframeev, the developer of the concept of dual-mode heavy-winged II
generation and author of the idea of a IGS and SSS, believes that the
two postulates to be the basis for the technical side of the ideology
Postulate possibilities: WIG must enable solutions in a sea of problems
that other high-speed tools are not able to solve due to the nature of
its technical appearance;
Tenet of security: WIG to provide an incomparably higher level of
operational safety for passengers and cargo in relation to other types
of high-speed vehicles (airplanes, etc.) operated over water.
opportunities determines whether a technical appearance WIG such
features, which can not be realized in the form of other means. Foremost
among them is a dual-mode - the ability of WIG as to make a long flight
with aircraft speed and a long swim in the water like boats. It
is this feature of EA Aframeev had in mind when he introduced the
lexicon ekranoplanostroeniya "second (II) generation" (the term
"generation" applies only to objects with a significant, fundamental
differences from the predecessors).
security includes flight safety, an emergency splashdown, long-term
presence and movement of water and a variety of other components of the
concept. The most important issue of security operation WIG requires further consideration.
these postulates is not by chance there is no mention of the
superiority of WIG in aerodynamic as to other high-speed vehicles. Shows
made E.A. Aframeev analysis of the characteristics of real and
immediate prospects for WIG, nor on aerodynamic quality, nor on the
weight perfection, neither on energy and fuel efficiency, they are not
serious competitors for the aircraft (including seaplane).
Little known about R.E. Alexeev.
activities of an outstanding designer, inventor, experimenter, the
founder of a domestic hydrofoils and WIG, founder of the Central Construction
Bureau in the courts by hydrofoil (CCB by SEC) and its research base
Rostislav Alexeyev Paton (18/12/1916 - 09/02/1980 ) said and written for many. Name
R.E. Alexeev know all the shipbuilders in Russia and, without
exaggeration, this is a name known to all the creators of high-speed
vessels abroad. Life R.E. Alexeev is a striking example of serving the high-speed shipbuilding, which he dedicated all his work and personal time.
However, the last period of REAlexeev little in the literature. Moreover, at times, and treated during this period in the wrong plan. In
particular, the beautifully written a whole book V.B. Diomidova
"Ekranoplanes born on the Volga" period of REAlexeev, after all the
persecution and degradation, head of the planning for the CCB SEC
characterized by withdrawal REAlexeev from the active CCB life, detachment from the WIG. A very promising design department was allegedly promising in name only.
This description in no way untrue. R.Y. Alekseev kept striving for technical search the rest of his life, and
the last period of his work is marked surge in true creativity. He freed himself from all the current concerns of design bureau and immersed himself in technical creativity. It was an example of how to behave in a courageous people, dedicated, and not a service chair. At
this time, Richard E. Alekseev conceived and put forward the idea of a
WIG fundamentally different technical aspect, with the aerodynamic
configuration "flying wing", on which he worked, and all subsequent
successful, these developments ekranoplanostroenie again, as once after
creating a winged KM unusually large for aircraft takeoff weight, would
be in some respects ahead of aviation.
this period, since the beginning of 1977, and almost until the very end
of life creative activity R.E. Alexeev proceeded in the framework of
scientific-research work "The Rise-2-SME", which ended in December 1979.
sincere admiration for that energy, tenacity of purpose, a succession
of finding new technical solutions, pioneering invention, shown
REAlexeev to work on a new aerodynamic configuration WIG. He
not only selflessly worked himself, but also ignited his energy as the
department staff and everyone who was involved in the case. It
is difficult to even estimate how many were created experimental models
of the enormous number of experiments were performed on the catapult
and tracks gasdynamic stands in wind tunnels and towing basins in the
open waters, made technical calculations and evaluations.
has been said clearly enough to determine this period of his life and
work R.E. Alexeev as the period of active creativity, which is typical, in
fact, for all his life.
"Flight" and "Rise-2-MSP.
early 1970 several research and design organizations of the
shipbuilding and aviation industries was carried out research work "The
Rise", devoted to assessing the possibility of creating WIG - Media
group of combat aircraft (MGCA). Since
1977, work was continued on the theme "Rise-2-MSP" ("Design and
experimental research in the provision of mining Aerohydrodynamic layout
of Minister of Shipbuilding Industry RY Alekseev was appointed chief
engineer of the Research "Rise-2-MSP", as Chief of the project office
Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute, now a
E.A. Aframeev - its leader. General management of the works on a number of organizations and enterprises of the shipbuilding industry, including the
choice of construction materials perspective WIG, defining the basic
parameters of their power plants, development issues manufacturability
of designs and construction of the fundamental technologies mentioned
above the order was placed on the Krylov Shipbuilding Research
parallel with the organization of work in the industry, E.A. Aframeev set
design and experimental research and development on heavy ekranoplans
II generation itself in the CRI. In
studies involving all main divisions of Nizhny Novgorod Research
Institute and its branch, dealing with aerodynamics, hydrodynamics,
structural strength, power plants. Thus,
research and development of promising WIG conducted in two centers -
CCB to the SEC and Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute. In
this case, CRI provides carrying on their pilot plants and the bulk of
experimental studies of the shipbuilding industry organizations involved
Organization of work on heavy ekranoplans in Research "Rise-2-MSP".
of Research "Rise-2-SME" EA Aframeev built a relationship with
REAlexeev and work on the topic so that there is no pressure on the
decision taken by the last appearance of the department developed a
promising design for the CDB is not subjected to SEC WIG. There
were only discussions on relevant technical meetings of research
results as layouts CDB for SPC, and layouts that developed CRI. Therefore,
as a special praise in his address, EA Aframeev regards phrase
REAlexeev, expressed after the end of the research: "Finally able to run
when no one interfered."
The idea WIG II generation and IGS SSS.
the results of "Flight," it was clear that the creation of
ENBS needs of the masses with 2500-3000 tons for aircraft-based group
represents a difficult, almost impossible, a technical problem,
especially in the power plant, and that work focused only on ENBS do not
have real prospect. Therefore,
E.A. Aframeev decided the bulk of the project and pilot studies in
research "Rise-2-MSP" redirect to the size WIG, which may be provided by
power plants near term. This
winged one could be interpreted as a big analog ENBS, which is required
for working off a single plane and find technical solutions to ENBS. Applied
directly to the same ENBS he decided to restrict ourselves to study its
appearance on paper, mostly - for reporting on the topic.
offer is topic leader was immediately taken R.E. Alexeev, who himself knew
the futility of wasting time and effort to develop unrealistic. Such an approach was made both in the works im.ak.A.N.Krylova Research Institute and Department of promising design for CCB SEC.
The first and main task in the design of WIG - Select the concept azrogidrodinamicheskoy layout.
Concepts in R & D "Flight-2-SME" in a wind arrangement WIG CCB by the SEC and Research Institute, were merely different. Concept
REAlexeev pursued to create a perfect aerodynamic for WIG, which has a
distinct advantage over aircraft in an aerodynamic quality and,
ultimately, in flight efficiency. Hence,
such non-trivial solutions in the arrangement of winged as aerodynamic
configuration "flying wing, retractable in-flight soft inflatable
ballonets (providing modes of navigation, take-off and landing) power
plant with high-performance turboprop engines (including for blowing a
load-bearing surface in the transition modes).
Aerodynamic design "flying wing".
operation, were born and tested on models until the self-propelled,
ideas WIG with low aspect ratio wing, improving "airplane" scheme with
elements of the composite wing, transport and amphibious platforms with
constant blowing. A
number of developments made by Richard E. Alekseev and his colleagues
in the subject has already claimed the practice, while others provide a
rich ground for reflection and further creativity.
the provision of ship qualities in configurations that developed the
planning department R.E Alexeyev, was insufficient. In fact who developed WIG were single-mode, ie had only one major mode - a flight. And
with regard to their layouts to the often asked question in those days:
"What is winged - flying boat or float plane?" Could be a clear answer:
of WIG in the Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute, by contrast,
started from the concept of WIG, a dual-mode type of marine equipment,
combined combining the qualities of displacement ships and aircraft,
which determines the championship rather than aerodynamic perfection, as
the ship qualities WIG (ie, the concept of "flying boat"). This concept organically from the above postulates and security capabilities in the design of WIG. A
solution to the problem of heavy WIG in the framework of this concept
and based on known aerodynamic configuration "composite wing" was not
and is not as difficult as compared with the concept R.E. Alexeev.
efforts of all staff of the planning R.E. Alexeev and its priority and
substantial funding (3 / 4 of the selected "Flight-2-MSP 2.3
billion), unfortunately, did not lead to success. The
reason for the termination of further work on ekranoplans concept of a
"floating plane" served as a negative result in the provision of
longitudinal stability of WIG flight with wind scheme "flying wing".
results of research in "The Rise-2-SME" by linking "flying boat",
confirmed by other research, which later went on E.A. Aframeev allowed him
finally to formulate the concept of promising heavy WIG as dual-mode
heavy WIG II generation.
addition, analysis of the total from previous experiences, research and
development on ekranoplans led him to conclude inexpedient to create
this new kind of technology for military purposes. According to E.A. Aframeev, airfoil may be used primarily for special tasks at sea. And
a priority system based on dual-mode heavy WIG II generation they were
offered to the creation of the International Global System for Maritime
Security (IGS SSS) of the framework that he developed.