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A Brief History of BUILDING OF WIGs and IGS SSS

A Brief History of BUILDING OF WIGs and IGS SSS

Large WIG I generation.

Projects rescuers I generation.

Lessons of building WIGs.

Little known about R.E. Alexeev.

"Flight" and "Rise-2-MSP.

The idea of WIG II generation and IGS SSS.

The idea of using air backup under the lower wing surface, moving near the underlying surface, to increase its lift almost 100 years. In the 20-30-XX century were carried out as the first theoretical studies and experimental work (with up to attempts to create a self-propelled vehicles of the samples), the effect of the screen on the aerodynamics of the wing.
Significant practical results in this field of technology has been achieved only in the late 50's R.E. Alexeev - a talented designer to domestic hydrofoils.

Large WIG I generation.

To a large ekranoplans I generation are created in 1966 experienced a ship mock-up debris and built by the end of 1980 have serial WIG project "Eaglet" (transport and landing) and "Lun" (rocket). CDB drafted by SEC WIG I generation "airborne" lay-wind scheme.

The winged ship: The ship - the layout (weight - 550 tons, speed - 400 km / h)

 Freight -landing winged ship "Eaglet" (weight - 140 tons, speed - 400 km / h)

Airfoil boat "Lun" (weight - 400 tons, speed - 500 km / h)


Projects of rescuers I generation.

Central Construction Burea implemented a number of the design and field experiments on the use of WIG I generation in the rescue purposes.
With long intervals due to lack of funding now comes alteration of the second (and last) winged rocket "Lun" in the world's first emergency - rescue winged "Rescuer". Operation of WIG "Rescuer" if it is completed, no doubt, will give the desired initial experience in conducting emergency emergency - rescue operations.

The rescue winged "Rescuer" (draft)

Another option of rescue winged "Rescuer" with the bathyscaphe (draft)

Rescue Complex Maria - Eaglet "(draft)

Natural experiment with WIG "Lun" salvage

Study based WIG-rescuers I generation

Lessons of Building of Wigs

The role of ideological concepts in the creation of new technology can not be overestimated. Correctly worked out the concept, lays in the adopted technical solutions, marked success in the creation of design concepts, its exploration and exploitation. Otherwise, ultimately, whittled down most of the efforts invested in the development of a new object, and inhibited the development of technology over time. On the other hand, how important the role of the concept, and so the difficult task of determining the correct a priori. This is confirmed by the entire history of building of WIGs.
With hindsight, it appears that progress in the development of WIG, a new species of marine resources would be great, if adopted R.E.Alexeev at the very beginning of his work on ekranoplans course for the creation of large vehicles with high seaworthiness was maintained in future. Construction WIG-model KM ok.550t displacement, in addition to the high altitude over the water wings, consoles, and the development of a number of other projects WIG large displacement, no doubt, were in the way of the strategic development of this new type of marine resources. Was immediately scheduled for a way to create WIG those large masses and seaworthiness, which ruled out the possibility of competition to them by air assets in solving several problems in the marine environment.
However, the design of WIG was later shifted to the creation of devices on the secondary displacement class "Eaglet". On the basis of this project was supposed to demonstrate the special qualities of WIG, and the cycle of their creation does not appear to be as lengthy. Unfortunately, practice shows that the time spent on commissioning new types of marine equipment depend little on their mass, and determined by the amount of research and new developments on the object, the test cycle and dovodok etc. etc. The result was lost pace in the development of themes. In addition, switching to low-wing scheme can not directly examine WIG "Eaglet" as a scale model to evaluate the characteristics of advanced WIG.
Creating a winged "Lun" mass 400T, we can say the situation has returned to their original positions, but will not eliminate the time lag in the way of solving strategic problems ekranoplanostroeniya.
Besides a number of external circumstances most, if not decisive negative role in this fact delays the development of winged subjects played a scientific organization like the customer, and industry. Originally from their side was not produced a clear sound development program WIG, the shortest path leading to the ultimate goal. And this very purpose, and therefore - and the concept of shape technological perspective WIG was not well defined and justified. Efforts R.E.Alexeev and CCB in the development of WIG, in fact, were not supported by deep and credible scientific researches on the use of this new type of technology or in the military, even more so in the civil sphere.
Despite already relatively long history ekranoplanostroeniya, now there is still no universally accepted definition of this type of technology. Do not set certain and specific principles at the forefront of designing WIG. There is no clear understanding of their place in the vehicles. Most papers in the area of feasibility of using WIG quite superficial.
Nevertheless, there are positive exceptions. Thus, in V.P. Sokolyansky and other researchers from TsAGI sufficient detail made a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of WIG and aircraft. It is shown that WIG is preferable to transport routes with frequent landings. This is the economic side ekranoplanostroeniya requiring further accurate assessments on specific routes at certain passazhirogruzopotokah, weather conditions, taking into account the availability of appropriate infrastructure, etc. etc. Without such specific estimates can not do in the development of basic technical configuration of WIG and ideology ekranoplanostroeniya.
But it is necessary to decide in the purely technical sphere. What pre-emptive technical quality must distinguish this kind of technology from other high-speed vehicles and, accordingly, in every possible way to develop the design of WIG and even be the core of their advertising? Unfortunately, these fundamental principles are not discussed to the extent necessary among ekranoplanostroiteley.
Dts EA Aframeev, the developer of the concept of dual-mode heavy-winged II generation and author of the idea of a IGS and SSS, believes that the two postulates to be the basis for the technical side of the ideology ekranoplanostroeniya:
- Postulate possibilities: WIG must enable solutions in a sea of problems that other high-speed tools are not able to solve due to the nature of its technical appearance;
- Tenet of security: WIG to provide an incomparably higher level of operational safety for passengers and cargo in relation to other types of high-speed vehicles (airplanes, etc.) operated over water.
Postulate opportunities determines whether a technical appearance WIG such features, which can not be realized in the form of other means. Foremost among them is a dual-mode - the ability of WIG as to make a long flight with aircraft speed and a long swim in the water like boats. It is this feature of EA Aframeev had in mind when he introduced the lexicon ekranoplanostroeniya "second (II) generation" (the term "generation" applies only to objects with a significant, fundamental differences from the predecessors).
Postulate security includes flight safety, an emergency splashdown, long-term presence and movement of water and a variety of other components of the concept. The most important issue of security operation WIG requires further consideration.
In these postulates is not by chance there is no mention of the superiority of WIG in aerodynamic as to other high-speed vehicles. Shows made E.A. Aframeev analysis of the characteristics of real and immediate prospects for WIG, nor on aerodynamic quality, nor on the weight perfection, neither on energy and fuel efficiency, they are not serious competitors for the aircraft (including seaplane).

Little known about R.E. Alexeev.

The activities of an outstanding designer, inventor, experimenter, the founder of a domestic hydrofoils and WIG, founder of the Central Construction Bureau in the courts by hydrofoil (CCB by SEC) and its research base Rostislav Alexeyev Paton (18/12/1916 - 09/02/1980 ) said and written for many. Name R.E. Alexeev know all the shipbuilders in Russia and, without exaggeration, this is a name known to all the creators of high-speed vessels abroad. Life R.E. Alexeev is a striking example of serving the high-speed shipbuilding, which he dedicated all his work and personal time.
However, the last period of REAlexeev little in the literature. Moreover, at times, and treated during this period in the wrong plan. In particular, the beautifully written a whole book V.B. Diomidova "Ekranoplanes born on the Volga" period of REAlexeev, after all the persecution and degradation, head of the planning for the CCB SEC characterized by withdrawal REAlexeev from the active CCB life, detachment from the WIG. A very promising design department was allegedly promising in name only.
This description in no way untrue. R.Y. Alekseev kept striving for technical search the rest of his life, and
the last period of his work is marked surge in true creativity. He freed himself from all the current concerns of design bureau and immersed himself in technical creativity. It was an example of how to behave in a courageous people, dedicated, and not a service chair. At this time, Richard E. Alekseev conceived and put forward the idea of a WIG fundamentally different technical aspect, with the aerodynamic configuration "flying wing", on which he worked, and all subsequent years. If successful, these developments ekranoplanostroenie again, as once after creating a winged KM unusually large for aircraft takeoff weight, would be in some respects ahead of aviation.
During this period, since the beginning of 1977, and almost until the very end of life creative activity R.E. Alexeev proceeded in the framework of scientific-research work "The Rise-2-SME", which ended in December 1979.
Cause sincere admiration for that energy, tenacity of purpose, a succession of finding new technical solutions, pioneering invention, shown REAlexeev to work on a new aerodynamic configuration WIG. He not only selflessly worked himself, but also ignited his energy as the department staff and everyone who was involved in the case. It is difficult to even estimate how many were created experimental models of the enormous number of experiments were performed on the catapult and tracks gasdynamic stands in wind tunnels and towing basins in the open waters, made technical calculations and evaluations.
What has been said clearly enough to determine this period of his life and work R.E. Alexeev as the period of active creativity, which is typical, in fact, for all his life.

"Flight" and "Rise-2-MSP.

In early 1970 several research and design organizations of the shipbuilding and aviation industries was carried out research work "The Rise", devoted to assessing the possibility of creating WIG - Media group of combat aircraft (MGCA). Since 1977, work was continued on the theme "Rise-2-MSP" ("Design and experimental research in the provision of mining Aerohydrodynamic layout perspective WIG).
Order of Minister of Shipbuilding Industry RY Alekseev was appointed chief engineer of the Research "Rise-2-MSP", as Chief of the project office Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute, now a E.A. Aframeev - its leader. General management of the works on a number of organizations and enterprises of the shipbuilding industry, including the choice of construction materials perspective WIG, defining the basic parameters of their power plants, development issues manufacturability of designs and construction of the fundamental technologies mentioned above the order was placed on the Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute.
In parallel with the organization of work in the industry, E.A. Aframeev set design and experimental research and development on heavy ekranoplans II generation itself in the CRI. In studies involving all main divisions of Nizhny Novgorod Research Institute and its branch, dealing with aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural strength, power plants. Thus, research and development of promising WIG conducted in two centers - CCB to the SEC and Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute. In this case, CRI provides carrying on their pilot plants and the bulk of experimental studies of the shipbuilding industry organizations involved i "Flight-2-MSP.

Organization of work on heavy ekranoplans in Research "Rise-2-MSP". .

Head of Research "Rise-2-SME" EA Aframeev built a relationship with REAlexeev and work on the topic so that there is no pressure on the decision taken by the last appearance of the department developed a promising design for the CDB is not subjected to SEC WIG. There were only discussions on relevant technical meetings of research results as layouts CDB for SPC, and layouts that developed CRI. Therefore, as a special praise in his address, EA Aframeev regards phrase REAlexeev, expressed after the end of the research: "Finally able to run when no one interfered."

The idea WIG II generation and IGS SSS.

From the results of "Flight," it was clear that the creation of ENBS needs of the masses with 2500-3000 tons for aircraft-based group represents a difficult, almost impossible, a technical problem, especially in the power plant, and that work focused only on ENBS do not have real prospect. Therefore, E.A. Aframeev decided the bulk of the project and pilot studies in research "Rise-2-MSP" redirect to the size WIG, which may be provided by power plants near term. This winged one could be interpreted as a big analog ENBS, which is required for working off a single plane and find technical solutions to ENBS. Applied directly to the same ENBS he decided to restrict ourselves to study its appearance on paper, mostly - for reporting on the topic.
This offer is topic leader was immediately taken R.E. Alexeev, who himself knew the futility of wasting time and effort to develop unrealistic. Such an approach was made both in the works im.ak.A.N.Krylova Research Institute and Department of promising design for CCB SEC.
The first and main task in the design of WIG - Select the concept azrogidrodinamicheskoy layout.
Concepts in R & D "Flight-2-SME" in a wind arrangement WIG CCB by the SEC and Research Institute, were merely different. Concept REAlexeev pursued to create a perfect aerodynamic for WIG, which has a distinct advantage over aircraft in an aerodynamic quality and, ultimately, in flight efficiency. Hence, such non-trivial solutions in the arrangement of winged as aerodynamic configuration "flying wing, retractable in-flight soft inflatable ballonets (providing modes of navigation, take-off and landing) power plant with high-performance turboprop engines (including for blowing a load-bearing surface in the transition modes).

Aerodynamic design "flying wing".

In operation, were born and tested on models until the self-propelled, ideas WIG with low aspect ratio wing, improving "airplane" scheme with elements of the composite wing, transport and amphibious platforms with constant blowing. A number of developments made by Richard E. Alekseev and his colleagues in the subject has already claimed the practice, while others provide a rich ground for reflection and further creativity.
However, the provision of ship qualities in configurations that developed the planning department R.E Alexeyev, was insufficient. In fact who developed WIG were single-mode, ie had only one major mode - a flight. And with regard to their layouts to the often asked question in those days: "What is winged - flying boat or float plane?" Could be a clear answer: "floating plane".
Development of WIG in the Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute, by contrast, started from the concept of WIG, a dual-mode type of marine equipment, combined combining the qualities of displacement ships and aircraft, which determines the championship rather than aerodynamic perfection, as the ship qualities WIG (ie, the concept of "flying boat"). This concept organically from the above postulates and security capabilities in the design of WIG. A solution to the problem of heavy WIG in the framework of this concept and based on known aerodynamic configuration "composite wing" was not and is not as difficult as compared with the concept R.E. Alexeev.
Great efforts of all staff of the planning R.E. Alexeev and its priority and substantial funding (3 / 4 of the selected "Flight-2-MSP 2.3 billion), unfortunately, did not lead to success. The reason for the termination of further work on ekranoplans concept of a "floating plane" served as a negative result in the provision of longitudinal stability of WIG flight with wind scheme "flying wing".
Positive results of research in "The Rise-2-SME" by linking "flying boat", confirmed by other research, which later went on E.A. Aframeev allowed him finally to formulate the concept of promising heavy WIG as dual-mode heavy WIG II generation.
In addition, analysis of the total from previous experiences, research and development on ekranoplans led him to conclude inexpedient to create this new kind of technology for military purposes. According to E.A. Aframeev, airfoil may be used primarily for special tasks at sea. And a priority system based on dual-mode heavy WIG II generation they were offered to the creation of the International Global System for Maritime Security (IGS SSS) of the framework that he developed.

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